Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease characterized by elevated blood glucose (sugar) levels. Diabetes refers to a complex metabolic condition in which the body either cannot produce insulin, does not produce enough insulin, or simply cannot use insulin effectively. Insulin is important because it helps break down and deliver sugar (glucose) to cells, which they need for energy, throughout the body.
The amount of sugar in the blood accumulates if you do not have enough insulin to break it down -> hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia can negatively affect every part of your body, including your eyes. The opposite of hyperglycemia is hypoglycemia or low blood sugar level. It can also temporarily lead to blurred vision until glucose levels return to normal.
Diabetes is a disease that deeply affects many areas of your body, including the eyes. Diabetes is the leading cause of blindness and poor eyesight in the working age population in the world. The eye of a person with diabetes mellitus is more susceptible to the development of various inflammations and degenerative processes, and there is also an earlier formation of cataracts. The most common late complication of diabetes in the eye is diabetic retinopathy. The best way to address the eye problems associated with diabetes is early detection of retinal abnormalities, regular monitoring, and prompt treatment.
According to global guidelines, people with type 1 diabetes are recommended to have their first eye examination within the first five years after the diagnosis.
People diagnosed with type 2 diabetes are advised to have their first check-up shortly after the diagnosis, as type 2 diabetes is harder to recognize and sometimes it is diagnosed quite late. An eye examination will help your doctor determine if you already have damage.
If you wear glasses or contact lenses, the examination is recommended at least once a year, with dilated pupils. During this examination, your doctor will perform several tests and dilate the pupils of both eyes to determine if your vision has changed because of diabetes.
Prepare for the examination. If you have noticed any changes in your vision, write them down. What happened, when did you first notice it, how long has it lasted, how did it happen, have the changes gone away or are they still present, why did the changes stop, what was the blood glucose level at the time of the episode, and so on.