Elevated intraocular pressure is considered a major risk factor for the development of glaucoma.
Glaucoma is a syndrome, which means that in addition to the value of intraocular pressure, there must be changes in the optic nerve and visual field. Normal intraocular pressure values range from 8 to 21 mmHg. It is important to note that any increase in intraocular pressure does not necessarily mean that a person has glaucoma!
Symptoms of glaucoma
The symptoms of glaucoma depend on the stage and type of the disease and can be unrecognized for a long time. Unfortunately, it is not uncommon for advanced glaucoma lesions to be detected in everyday practice without the person noticing any disturbances. Glaucoma is most often detected during the first detailed ophthalmological examination at the time when patients feel presbyopic disorders (senile farsightedness) and report for an examination to determine the glasses. According to some research, only half of patients who have glaucoma are aware of their disease. In the early stages, it is usually asymptomatic (no “sensory” symptoms) and is therefore often called the “silent thief” of sight.
In open-angle glaucoma, the symptoms usually do not exist. Very often patients appear only when damage to the optic nerve and changes in the visual field have occurred. On the other hand, the symptoms of angle-closure glaucoma can be very violent. They are characterized by extremely high intraocular pressure, a significant decrease in visual acuity, pain in the area above and around the eye, headaches, nausea and vomiting.
What are the factors for glaucoma?
- age over 45
- Presence of glaucoma in the family
- high myopia
- patients with high blood pressure, hypothyroidism, diabetes
- due to frequent and long-term corticosteroid therapy
- eye injuries